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    Healthy Lives. Measurable Results.
    PSI Home \ HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections \ Combination Prevention
    Photo by: Gareth Bentley

    Combination Prevention is a framework used for HIV prevention. It is the backbone of our efforts to deliver HIV prevention solutions at scale across the globe.

    No single HIV prevention intervention offers a magic bullet. Therefore, effective HIV prevention programs require a combination of behavioral, biomedical and structural interventions. Combination prevention forms the backbone of PSI’s efforts to deliver HIV prevention solutions at scale across the globe.

    We design evidence-based and cost-effective solutions specifically to meet the needs of populations at risk of HIV, and tailor them to the epidemiological contexts where each program operates.

    Our behavioral interventions include a range of behavior change communication activities designed to promote HIV risk-reducing and protective behaviors. These activities span, and often combine mass media, community mobilization, advocacy and interpersonal communication (IPC) such as one-to-one or one-to-group educational activities.

    We deliver behavior change solutions to prevent HIV in nearly every country where we work and use these communication activities to promote the use of products (such as condoms), health services (such as HIV testing and counseling or voluntary medical male circumcision) and to promote protective barrier methods / behaviors.

    Certain medical interventions can prevent HIV infection, decrease infectiousness and/or reduce the risk of infection. These interventions include:

    We also deliver pre-exposure prophylaxis (or antiretroviral-based prevention) in Zimbabwe and have plans to scale up this work in 2017 and beyond.

    Structural interventions refer to strategies meant to change social, political and economic factors that increase an individual’s vulnerability to HIV. In each country where we operate, we tailor structural interventions to the local context. Programs address stigma and discrimination toward people living with HIV and key populations, gender inequality and gender based violence. Structural interventions also support income-generating activities, promote the integration of health services and advocatetogovernments for supportive policies.

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    Making a Difference
    Main article: Co-branding

    Co-branding is a variation of brand extension. It is where a single product is created from the combining of two brand names of two manufacturers. Co-branding has its advantages as it lets firms enter new product classes and exploit a recognized brand name in that product class. An example of a co-branding success is Whitaker's working with Lewis Road Creamery to create a co-branded beverage called Lewis Road Creamery and Whittaker's Chocolate Milk. This product was a huge success in the New Zealand market with it going viral.

    Multibranding strategy is when a company gives each product a distinct name. Multibranding is best used as an approach when each brand in intended for a different market segment. Multibranding is used in an assortment of ways with selected companies grouping their brands based on price-quality segments. Procter Gamble (PG), a multinational consumer goods company that offers over 100 brands, each suited for different consumer needs. For instance, Head Shoulders that helps consumers relieve dandruff in the form of a shampoo, Oral-B which offers inter-dental products, Comfortable Online RIDLEY High Waist Skinny Jeans in Fleur Light Green Cast Fleur light green Asos Petite Shopping Online Sale Online Cheap Sale Good Selling Outlet Store Cheap Online Sale Fashionable YVaqnoBz5N
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    This approach usually results in higher promotion costs and advertising. This is due to the company being required to generate awareness among consumers and retailers for each new brand name without the benefit of any previous impressions. Multibranding strategy has many advantages. There is no risk that a product failure will affect other products in the line as each brand is unique to each market segment. Although, certain large multiband companies have come across that the cost and difficulty of implementing a multibranding strategy can overshadow the benefits. For example, Cheap Sale Amazon opentoe sandals Brown Alexandre Birman Clearance Browse For Sale X9s34uW
    , the world's third-largest multination consumer goods company recently streamlined its brands from over 400 brands to centre their attention onto 14 brands with sales of over 1 billion euros. Unilever accomplished this through product deletion and sales to other companies. Other multibrand companies introduce new product brands as a protective measure to respond to competition called fighting brands or fighter brands.

    Main article: Fighter brand

    The main purpose of fighting brands is to challenge competitor brands. For example, Perey Sneakers Acne Studios Deals Big Sale Clearance Purchase WqK7h1yw
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    When adding a third parity drive, we have three ways to encode the third parity drive, as mentioned in Table . RTP is using full stripe while the proposed RAID-6Plus is short striped. We will compare RTP, RAID-6Plus, mirroring for single drive, and mirroring for all drives with metric and take RDP_optimal as the baseline performance.The results are shown in Figure .

    comparison of four ways of adding third parity drive.

    In this way, it can be clearly seen that the existing RTP has no contribution in accelerating single failure rebuild with a zero , which is the very motivation of RAID-6Plus. Among possible way to encode the third parity drive, RAID-6Plus prevails. The reason behind this is RAID-6Plus has nearly an even and balanced coverage for all data drives and short combinations in drive use as less data elements as possible.

    In short, metric is proving that, unlike RTP and STAR, RAID-6Plus is a valid way to extend RDP from the perspective of single failure reconstruction.

    Typically, in erasure codes, there are two basic arithmetic to be in use: XOR and Galois Field. XOR-based codes are faster than GF-based codes while GF-based code has wider flexibility in code construction [ Looking For Cheap Online Sale Online Shopping FOOTWEAR Ballet flats Kiton Outlet Hot Sale N3zsahJ
    ]. RAID-6Plus, as an extension on the basis of XOR-based codes, is still XOR-based, such as RTP [ 8 ] and STAR [ 27 ]. RAID-6Plus is faster with less complexity incurred in parity computation.

    MDS codes like RS code are traditional focus of storage reliability for they offer further reliability boundary, that is, absolute fault tolerance [ 5 ]. Both RTP and STAR are MDS codes, but they are unable to accelerate single failure reconstruction. Non-MDS codes are thus invented. A typical example is the LRC codes from Microsoft [ 33 ]. However, LRC is horizontal codes and GF-based while RAID-6Plus is array code and XOR-based.

    Efforts have also been made to accelerating single failure. They focus either on finding optimal reconstruction sequences [ pointed toe mule Yellow amp; Orange CALVIN KLEIN 205W39NYC Discount With Paypal 191VFO0UiA
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    ] or on load-balancing [ 23 , 30 ]. However all these work are limited to the given codes, without modification or extension. To our knowledge, RAID-6Plus is first to extend given codes from the perspective of speedup single failure instead of providing reliability boundary. Further, RAID-6Plus [ Clearance Shop For Marc By Marc Jacobs Woman Codie Leather Slipon Sneakers Black Size 40 Marc Jacobs With Mastercard Cheap Price Get The Latest Fashion Buy Online Cheap Price BQs6YcEq
    ] is orthogonal with previous work above and can be integrated together to further shorten reconstruction window.

    The existing methodology of extending RAID-6 codes considers only the fault tolerance level by utilizing the third redundant drive to recover from triple-failure scenarios. As a result, no contribution is made to speed up rebuilding single failures, and consequently, the third parity drive is almost idle.

    This paper proposes RAID-6Plus, allowing the reuse of overlapped elements during reconstruction to balance the reliability and performance of the resulting coding scheme. By applying the proposed methodology to RDP and -code, respectively, we generate two new coding schemes named RDP+ and -code+ to provide a better balance between performance and reliability. The performance evaluation indicated that RAID-6Plus exhibited () a better system performance with no extra cost compared to RTP and STAR and () an enhanced reliability compared to RAID-6. With the proposed -metric, a detailed justification of the proposed methodology is provided.

    The solution is 4. The possible combinations are:

    Note : Sets like {1,1,2) or {3,3,3} aren’t included in the calculation, as you can’t choose an item more than once for a set.

    4 Choose 0 is 1. Why? This might seem like a mind bender; how can you choose none and still get 1? But you have to look at it a slightly different way.

    Combinations are just the full spread of different ways you can arrange the various subsets of one larger set. For a simple example take the set of A={1,2}. You can form four subsets of this set: {}, {1}, {2}, and {1,2}. These subsets are called the combinations of set A.

    If you have 4 items and you’re not choosing any, you still have those four items in the set: {1,2,3,4}. In other words, you didn’t take any away, so you still have them all, i.e. 1 set. Back to Top

    Most of the time, you aren’t told whether you should use the permutation formula or te combination formula. Part of problem solving involves figuring this out on your own. The following examples show you how to do this.

    Example problem #1: Five bingo numbers are being picked from a ball containing 100 bingo numbers. How many possible ways are there for picking different numbers?

    Example problem #1:

    Step 1: Figure out if you have permutations or combinations . Order doesn’t matter in Bingo. Or for that matter, most lottery games. As order doesn’t matter, it’s a combination.

    permutations combinations

    Step 2: Put your numbers into the formula. The number of items (Bingo numbers) is “n.” And “k” is the number of items you want to put in order. You have 100 Bingo numbers and are picking 5 at a time, so: Step 3: Solve: That’s it! Example problem #2. Five people are being selected for president, vice president, CEO, and secretary. The president will be chosen first, followed by the other three positions. How many different ways can the positions be filled?

    Put your numbers into the formula. Solve: Example problem #2.

    Step 1: Figure out if you have permutations or combinations . You can’t just throw people into these positions; They are selected in a particular order for particular jobs. Therefore, it’s a permutations problem.

    Step 2: Put your numbers into the formula. There are five people who you can put on the committee. Only four positions are available. Therefore “n” (the number of items you have to choose from) is 5, and “k” (the number of available slots) is 4: Step 3: Solve: That’s it!

    Back to Top

    You have a couple of options on the internet.

    Permutations formula: PERMUT(number, number_chosen) For example, if you had 100 items and wanted to choose 4, you would type the following into a blank cell: =PERMUT(100,4)






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