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Greeting Officials of the University of Oxford as they pass
Copyright © Rob Judges Photography. This image comes from Oxford University Images - All rights reserved.
Oxford students Graduation leaving Oxford Degree ceremonies
Academic degrees date from the second half of the twelfth century. The present ceremony retains all the essential features of its ancient predecessors, with the proceedings still conducted in Latin.

Booking your degree ceremony

University of Oxford degrees are conferred at degree ceremonies, held in the Sheldonian Theatre. You may graduate in person or in absence, either straight after you've finished your degree, or many years later.If you choose to graduate in person, you will be presented by your college, hall or society.

Undergraduate or Taught Master's students: Research students:

Your college will communicate with you regarding arrival, gowning, catering arrangements and any charges you may be required to pay.

Degree ceremony dates

Please note that colleges will present graduands only on certain dates. If you completed your degree a number of years ago and haven’t yet graduated, or if you are a candidate for the Oxford MA, please contact your college to confirm which dates will be available to you.

Degree ceremony bookings close 60 days prior to the ceremony date.

Once booked onto a ceremony, you will be unable to change to another ceremony date during the 60 day period before the degree day. If you decide to withdraw from the ceremony during this time, your degree will be conferred at the ceremony in absentia and you will not be able to attend a future date. Your place will be offered to graduands on the waiting list for that ceremony.

If you are, due to exceptional circumstances, required to withdraw from the ceremony within the 60 day period your college may seek permission on your behalf from the Vice-Chancellor and Proctors (via the Degree Conferral Office) to exceptionally be allowed to apply for a place at another ceremony. Exceptional circumstances might include, but are not limited to: students or their guests with serious illness, or other comparable serious and unavoidable difficulties. Exceptional circumstances do not include work commitments, volunteering commitments, holidays, visa issues (where visas applications have been left too late to be processed in time for the ceremony), the unavailability of guests or similar. You will be asked to provide evidence of these circumstances.

Perspectives on the industries and issues that matter
/ / Environment
Sep 18, 2017 5 MIN. READ
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A new Executive Order designed to shorten federal environmental reviews and permitting, if successful, would mean big changes for National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) reviews and federal approvals of major projects.

Alan Summerville
Vice President
Alan Summerville
Vice President
Alan Summerville
Vice President
Alan Summerville's Recent Articles
Rich Walter
Senior Fellow
Rich Walter
Senior Fellow

In August, President Trump signed an Executive Order (EO) that aims to complete environmental review and approvals of major infrastructure projects 1 within two years by instituting changes to those processes and new accountability requirements for lead agencies, their personnel, and other reviewing and permitting agency personnel. While the two-year requirement might seem daunting, agencies have already achieved that time-frame and even shorter ones for major infrastructure projects. Moreover, those reviews didn't “cut corners” and to the extent that they were challenged in court, the agencies prevailed.

How does the measure stack-up against those enacted by predecessors and how can agencies, and environmental practitioners prepare? Read on to learn more.

How Have Past Administrations and Congress Tried to Expedite Environmental Reviews and Permitting?

Since 1970, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) has required federal agencies to weigh the environmental consequences of their actions before making decisions. It can and often does take years to complete NEPA reviews, particularly for major infrastructure projects. Even though the NEPA implementing regulations have page limits for Environmental Impact Statements (EISs), stress that agencies focus on what is important, state that federal agencies should integrate the requirements of NEPA with other planning and environmental review procedures, and contain provisions for time limits, over the years agencies have produced EISs that greatly exceed the page limits and take too long to complete.

While there are various reasons that an EIS process can take too long, the excessively long ones lead to protracted internal reviews and requests from stakeholders to extend comment periods. In the end, a lengthy EIS does not make the process more legally defensible. Moreover, they can overwhelm and bog-down reviewing agencies, the public, elected officials, and ultimately, the judges. In addition, the amount of time involved in agency decisions regarding areas such as wetlands, endangered species, historic properties, and bridges can take too long because of staffing constraints, varying statutory responsibilities, differing missions, and policy differences. The new EO is the latest of many attempts by past administrations and congress to streamline the NEPA review and authorization processes:

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A funeral is a ceremony for commemorating the lives of the recently passed. Funeral customs consist of varying beliefs and practices used by a culture to commemorate the dead, including the construction of monuments, recitation of prayers, and execution of rituals. Customs vary between cultures, religious affiliations, and familial preference. One traditional practice involves giving sympathy flowers to the deceased. Flowers carry several symbolic meanings for each arrangement. Some of these meanings evolved from experience, tradition, and religions unbeknownst to the masses. Nevertheless, these beliefs and customs continue today in reverence to those who have died. Choosing the wrong flower arrangement could turn a well-intentioned sympathy gift into an offensive display; therefore, it is wise for people to know their intentions before sending flowers to a funeral home as an expression of their sentiments. Study the following meanings of these funeral flowers to prevent unwanted responses from the bereaved.


Lilies are commonly associated with funeral services, mainly because their beauty and simplicity makes them suitable for such an occasion. Lilies evoke a feeling of peace and tranquility. Symbolically, these flowers promote the notion that the soul of the person has returned to a state of innocence. Be careful when selecting lilies, as their color and variety significantly changes the meaning behind the arrangement. For instance, white lilies symbolize purity and appear at funerals more often than other varieties. Stargazer lilies symbolize sympathy, which makes them an appropriate option for the loved ones of the recently departed. Oriental lilies symbolize eternal life, making them the perfect option at religious services commemorating the dead.


Gladioli flowers have a tall stem composed of multiple flowers that may grow up to 4 feet tall. The term gladioli derives from the Latin word gladius , which translates to sword. As a result, many people refer to them as the sword lily because of the way they look. The gladioli carry several symbolic meanings, including strength of character, sincerity, and integrity. The gladioli can be given in any range of colors, including white, red, pink, purple, orange, green, salmon, and yellow.


Carnations are a popular choice for sympathy arrangements, especially since they have a long-lasting fragrance. Each color evokes or symbolizes an emotion. For instance, red carnations evoke admiration for a loved one that has passed. Pink carnations stand for remembrance of the deceased. White carnations symbolize untainted love and innocence.

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Research Article Special Articles
Ellen A Becker , Cheryl A Hoerr , Kimberly S Wiles , Debra L Skees , Corinne H Miller and Douglas S Laher
Respiratory Care January 2018, 63 (1) 102-117; DOI:
Ellen A Becker
Department of Cardiopulmonary Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL.
Cheryl A Hoerr
Department of Respiratory and Sleep Services; Phelps County Regional Medical Center, Rolla, MO.
Kimberly S Wiles
Allegheny Health Network Home Medical Equipment, Ford City, PA.
Debra L Skees
Department of Respiratory Services, Mercy Hospital-Allina Health, Coon Rapids, MN.
Corinne H Miller
Rush University Medical Center,Chicago, IL Galter Health Sciences Library, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL.
Douglas S Laher
American Association for Respiratory Care, Irving, TX.

INTRODUCTION: Changes to the reimbursement of respiratory care services over the past 26 years make it imperative that respiratory therapists (RTs) demonstrate cost savings to establish their value. Therefore, this systematic review evaluated the cost-related impacts from utilizing RTs to deliver care when compared to other care providers.

METHODS: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were used to guide the search process. The study addressed articles across all age groups and care settings that compared the cost of care provided by RTs to a comparison group. Studies were excluded if they were not written in English, described care provided outside of the United States, did not provide quantitative data, or lacked a comparison group.

RESULTS: A total of 4,120 articles emerged from the search process, of which 60 qualified for a full text review. Cost savings were evaluated for the 28 articles included in this review, noting the study design, the specific respiratory care practice, use of protocols, clinical setting, and age group. The most frequently studied topic was mechanical ventilation, which along with disease management represented by the most randomized, controlled trials for the study design. The clinical practice area notably absent was home care.

CONCLUSIONS: Although cost comparisons across studies could not be made due to the inconsistent manner in which data were reported, evidence demonstrated that care provided by RTs yielded both direct and indirect cost reductions, which were achieved through protocol utilization, specialized expertise, and autonomous decision making. The care provided was consistent with care provided by other disciplines. It is critical for the respiratory care profession to highlight key clinical practice areas for future research, to establish uniform reporting measures for outcomes, and to foster the development of future respiratory care researchers to affirm the value that respiratory therapists add to patient care.


The authors report that they each have served or are now serving on the AARC Board of Directors; Mr Laher is an AARC Associate Executive Director. will help you with any book or any question. Our summaries and analyses are written by experts, and your questions are answered by real teachers.

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